Sabtu, 09 Januari 2016

REPORTED SPEECH DIRECT OR INDIRECT SPEECH

REPORTED SPEECH DIRECT OR INDIRECT SPEECH

That’s a way of expressing what the other person (speaker) has said directly in the form of statements, questions, or greeting others by changing the format of the talks so that it becomes more clear, natural, and efficient for the listener.

Let's first define the terms, then look at how to talk about what someone said, and how to convert speech from direct to indirect or vice-versa.
You can answer the question What did he say? in two ways:
by repeating the words spoken (direct speech)
by reporting the words spoken (indirect or reported speech).

DIRECT SPEECH
Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between quotation marks (" ") and there is no change in these words. We may be reporting something that's being said NOW (for example a telephone conversation), or telling someone later about a previous conversation.

EXAMPLES
She says, "What time will you be home?"
She said, "What time will you be home?" and I said, "I don't know! "
"There's a fly in my soup!" screamed Simone.
John said, "There's an elephant outside the window."



INDIRECT SPEECH
Reported or indirect speech is usually used to talk about the past, so we normally change the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs like 'say', 'tell', 'ask', and we may use the word 'that' to introduce the reported words. Inverted commas are not used.

EXAMPLES

Erfin Said that he was so happy
They Said that they had watched the football game.



Direct and Indirect speech can be divided into 3 parts:

1. Command

Command consists of 2 types, Positive and Negative Command


A. Positive Command

In this pattern introductory phrase is expressed with verbs: tell, ask, advise, etc. To be followed by the infinitive.
Ecample
Direct : The teacher said to me : “open your book”
Indirect : The teacher asked me to open my book



B. Negative Command

Introductory sentence: He asked me, He told me not to + reporter words, He ordered me
Direct : Father asked me : “ Don’t go out”
Indirect : Father asked me no to go out.



2. Statement

In indirect statement, “that” is used as a liaison between the introductory sentences and words that are reported (reported speech) Introductory sentence in the statement: He said + that + Reported words.
Example
Direct: She says: “I go to school every day.”
Indirect: She says that he goes to school every day.



3. Question

When a direct question in the form of YES and NO answer then IF or Whether as a support between the introductory phrase and Reported words.
Introductory sentence for the pattern is: He asked me IF / Whether.

When questions using words Questions such as: where, when, what, why, who, Whose, how, etc. then these words serve as a link between the introductory phrase and Reported words, the pattern is as follows: He asked me + Question Reported words Words.

EXAMPLE 

Direct : we asked the man “Do you like coffe?”

Indirect : we asked the man if/whether he liked coffe.
Direct : seisy asked Helen : “have you seen that film?”
Indirect : seisy asked Helen if/whether she had seen that film.



Tense change
As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right):
Direct speech

Indirect speech
Present simple 
She said, "It's cold."
Past simple 
She said it was cold.
Present continuous 
She said, "I'm teaching English online."
Past continuous 
She said she was teaching English online.
Present perfect simple 
She said, "I've been on the web since 1999."
Past perfect simple 
She said she had been on the web since 1999.
Present perfect continuous 
She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years."
Past perfect continuous 
She said she had been teaching English for seven years.
Past simple 
She said, "I taught online yesterday."
Past perfect 
She said she had taught online yesterday.
Past continuous 
She said, "I was teaching earlier."
Past perfect continuous 
She said she had been teaching earlier.
Past perfect 
She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived."
Past perfect 
NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had already started when he arrived.
Past perfect continuous
She said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes."

Past perfect continuous 
NO CHANGE - She said she'd already been teaching for five minutes.
Many modal verb forms also change:
Direct speech

Indirect speech
will 
She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow."
would 
She said she would teach English online tomorrow.
can 
She said, "I can teach English online."
could 
She said she could teach English online.
must 
She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online."
had to 
She said she had to have a computer to teach English online.
shall 
She said, "What shall we learn today?"
should 
She asked what we should learn today.
may 
She said, "May I open a new browser?"
might 
She asked if she might open a new browser.
!Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to.

Time change
If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting.
For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting.
Now
+ 24 hours - Indirect speech
"Today's lesson is on presentations."
She said yesterday's lesson was on presentations.
or
She said yesterday's lesson would be on presentations.



Expressions of time if reported on a different day
this (evening)
that (evening)
today
yesterday ...
these (days)
those (days)
now
then
(a week) ago
(a week) before
last weekend
the weekend before last / the previous weekend
here
there
next (week)
the following (week)
tomorrow
the next/following day
In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there).
For example:-
At work
At home
"How long have you worked here?"
She asked me how long I'd worked there.




Exercise
1. Can I borrow your pencil for a moment?
A. She asked me if she can borrow my pencil for a moment.

B. She asked me whether she can borrow my pencil for a moment.
C. She asked me whether she could borrow my pencil for a moment.


2. Why are you staring at my feet?
A. He asked her why she is staring at his feet.
B. He asked her why she was staring at his feet.
C. He asked her why was she staring at his feet.

3. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
A. He said that the sun rose in the east and set in the west.
B. He said that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
C. He asked if the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

4. I’m going to meet my penpal for the first time tomorrow.
A. She said she was going to meet her penpal for the first time the next day.
B. She said she was going to meet my penpal for the first time tomorrow.
C. She said she was going to meet her penpal for the first time tomorrow.

5. We have been here for a week.
A. They said they had been there for a week.
B. They said they had been here for a week.
C. They said we had been there for a week.


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Sabtu, 28 November 2015

MODAL VERBS

Modal Verbs
A modal verb (also 'modal', 'modal auxiliary verb', 'modal auxiliary') is a type of verb that is used to indicate modality – that is, likelihood, ability, permission, and obligation.

Examples include the English verbs can/could, may/might, must, will/would, and shall/should. In English and other Germanic languages, modal verbs are often distinguished as a class based on certain grammatical properties.

COMMON MODAL VERBS

1.    Can
2.    Could
3.    May
4.    Might
5.    Must
6.    Ought to 
7.    Shall 
8.    Should 
9.    Will 
10. Would


Can
"Can" is one of the most commonly used modal verbs in English. It can be used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or impossibility.
Examples:
  • can ride a horse. ability
  • We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris. Opportunity

We can using "Can" in Present, Past, and Future

For :

1.    General Ability
2.    Ability During A Specific Event
3.    Opportunity
4.    Permission
5.    Request
6.    Possibility, Impossibility
example
1.     (+ )     I can speak Chinese.
( - )      I can’t speak Chinese
2.    (+)       I could speak Chinese when I was a kid.
( - )      I couldn’t speak Chinese when I was a kid.
3.    (+)       I will be able to speak Chinese by the time I finish my course.
( - )      I won’t be able to speak Chinese by the time I finish my course.

 

 Could
"Could" is used to express possibility or past ability as well as to make suggestions and requests. "Could" is also commonly used in conditionalsentences as the conditional form of "can."
Examples:
  • Extreme rain could cause the river to flood the city. possibility
  • Nancy could ski like a pro by the age of 11. past ability
  • You could see a movie or go out to dinner. suggestion
  • Could I use your computer to email my boss? request
  • We could go on the trip if I didn't have to work this weekend. conditional

We can using "Could" in Present, Past, and Future

For :
1.    Possibility
John could have been the one who stole the money.
2.    Conditional of can
If I had more time this winter, I could travel around the world.
3.    Suggestion
You could spend your vacation in Hawaii. 
4.    Past ability
Yesterday, I couldn't lift the couch by myself.
5.    Polite request
Could I borrow your stapler?
REMEMBER: "Could not" vs. "Might not"
"Could not" suggests that it is impossible for something to happen. "Might not" suggests you do not know if something happens.
Examples:
  • Jack might not have the key. Maybe he does not have the key.
  • Jack could not have the key. It is impossible that he has the key.


May

"May" is most commonly used to express possibility. It can also be used to give or request permission, although this usage is becoming less common.
Examples:
  • Cheryl may be at home, or perhaps at work. possibility
  • Johnny, you may leave the table when you have finished your dinner. give permission
  • May I use your bathroom? request permission

We can Using "May" in Present, Past, and Future

For :

1.    Possibility
Jack may get upset if you don't tell him the truth.
2.    give permission
You may leave the table now that you're finished with your dinner.
3.    request permission
May I make a phone call?
Requests usually refer to the near future.

Might

"Might" is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used in conditional sentences. English speakers can also use "might" to make suggestions or requests, although this is less common in American English.
Examples:
  • Your purse might be in the living room. possibility
  • If I didn't have to work, I might go with you. conditional
  • You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit. suggestion
  • Might I borrow your pen? Request
For :
1.    Possibility
She might not have taken the bus. She might have walked home.
2.    conditional of may
If I entered the contest tomorrow, I might actually win. Unfortunately, I can't enter it.
3.    Suggestion
You might try the cheesecake.
4.    Request
Might I have something to drink?
REMEMBER: "Might not" vs. "Could not" 
"Might not" suggests you do not know if something happens. "Could not" suggests that it is impossible for something to happen.
Examples:
  • Jack might not have the key. Maybe he does not have the key.
  • Jack could not have the key. It is impossible that he has the key.

Must

"Must" is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to express necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer the more flexible form "have to." "Must not" can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as "should not" or "ought not" to dissuade rather than prohibit.
Examples:
  • This must be the right address! certainty
  • Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. necessity
  • You must take some medicine for that cough. strong recommendation
  • Jenny, you must not play in the street! Prohibition
For :
1.    Certainty
That must have been the right restaurant. There are no other restaurants on this street.
2.    Prohibition
You must not forget to take your malaria medication while you are in the tropics.
3.    Strong recommendation
You shouldn't have drunk so much. That caused the accident.
4.    Necessity
You must have a permit to enter the national park.
REMEMBER: "Must not" vs. "Do not have to"
"Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. "Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something.
Examples:
  • You must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed.
  • You don't have to eat that. You can if you want to, but it is not necessary.


Ought To

"Ought to" is used to advise or make recommendations. "Ought to" also expresses assumption or expectation as well as strong probability, often with the idea that something is deserved. "Ought not" (without "to") is used to advise against doing something, although Americans prefer the less formal forms "should not" or "had better not."
Examples:
  • You ought to stop smoking. recommendation
  • Jim ought to get the promotion. It is expected because he deserves it.
  • This stock ought to increase in value. probability
  • Mark ought not drink so much. advice against something (notice there is no "to")
For :
1.    Recommendation, Advice
Margaret ought to come to the fitness center with us tonight.
2.    assumption, expectation, probability
She ought to have the package by now.
Notice "Ought not"
Remember that "ought to" loses the "to" in the negative. Instead of "ought not to," we say "ought not." "Ought not" is more commonly used in British English. Americans prefer "should not."
Examples:
  • You ought not smoke so much.
  • She ought not take such risks while skiing.
  • They ought not carry so much cash while traveling.


Shall

"Shall" is used to indicate future action. It is most commonly used in sentences with "I" or "we," and is often found in suggestions, such as "Shall we go?" "Shall" is also frequently used in promises or voluntary actions. In formal English, the use of "shall" to describe future events often expresses inevitability or predestination. "Shall" is much more commonly heard in British English than in American English; Americans prefer to use other forms, although they do sometimes use "shall" in suggestions or formalized language.
Examples:
  • Shall I help you? suggestion
  • I shall never forget where I came from. promise
  • He shall become our next king. predestination
  • I'm afraid Mr. Smith shall become our new director. Inevitability
For :
1.    future action
I shall be there by 8:00.
2.    Suggestions
Shall we begin dinner?
3.    Volunteering, Promising
I shall never give up the fight for freedom.
4.    Inevitability
He shall not be held back. 

Should

"Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation.
Examples:
  • When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. recommendation
  • You should focus more on your family and less on work. advice
  • I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. obligation
  • By now, they should already be in Dubai. Expectation
For :
1.    recommendation, advisability
Sarah shouldn't have smoked so much. That's what caused her health problems.
2.    Obligation
I should be at work before 9:00.
3.    Expectation
A. Susan should be in New York by now. 
B. Susan should have arrived in New York last week. Let's call her and see what she is up to.
C. Susan should be in New York by next week. Her new job starts on Monday.

Will

"Will" is used with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future. "Will" can also be used to make predictions about the future. For more information on using "will" and associated exercises, visit the Simple Future section of our Verb Tense Tutorial.
Examples:
  • I promise that I will write you every single day. promise
  • I will make dinner tonight. voluntary action
  • He thinks it will rain tomorrow. prediction

More Examples of "Will"

Modal Use
Positive Forms
Negative Forms
Also use:
will 
future action,
prediction
The marketing director will be replaced by someone from the New York office.
Fred will be there by 8:00.
The marketing director will not be replaced after all.
Fred will not be there. He has a previous obligation.
shall
will 
volunteering,
promising
 
I will take care of everything for you.
I will make the travel arrangements. There's no need to worry.
I will never forget you.
I will never give up the fight for freedom.
shall

Would

"Would" is most commonly used to create conditional verb forms. It also serves as the past form of the modal verb "will." Additionally, "would" can indicate repetition in the past. For more information on the grammar behind the modal verb "would," visit the following tutorials: Conditional Tutorial, Future in the Past, and Would Always.
Examples:
  • If he were an actor, he would be in adventure movies. conditional
  • I knew that she would be very successful in her career. past of "will"
  • When they first met, they would always have picnics on the beach. repetition
Modal Use
Positive Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
would 
conditional
1. If I were president, I would cut the cost of education.
2. If I had been president, I would have cut the cost of education.
3. If I were elected president next year, I would cut the cost of education.
1. If I were president, I would not raise taxes.
2. If I had been president, I would not have raised taxes.
3. If I were president, I would not sign the tax increase next week.
would 
past of "will"
I said I would help you.
He told me he would be here before 8:00.
I said I wouldn't help you.
He told me he would not be here before 8:00.
would 
repetition in past
When I was a kid, I would always go to the beach.
When he was young, he would always do his homework.
When I was a kid, I wouldn't go into the water by myself.
When he got older, he would never do his homework.


Modal Forms
Modal verbs can be used in a variety of different forms. Study the examples below.
Modal Simple
I should clean the room once a day.
Passive Modal Simple 
The room should be cleaned once a day.
Modal Continuous 
I should be cleaning the room now.
Passive Modal Continuous 
The room should be being cleaned now.
Modal Perfect 
I should have cleaned the room yesterday.
Passive Modal Perfect 
The room should have been cleaned yesterday.
Modal Perfect Continuous 
I should have been cleaning the room instead of watching TV.
Passive Modal Perfect Continuous 
The room should have been being cleaned but nobody was there. (Rare form)


Exercise:
1. If Debbie hasn’t come home yet, she___________for us in the coffee shop.
2. Mike decided not to join us for lunch. He_________at work to finish the marketing report.
3. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I__________on a white sand beach right now.
4. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I___________come to work this week.
5. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I_______________scuba diving lessons.

The answer :
1.       must still be waiting
2.       had to stay
3.       would be lying
4.       would not have had to

5.       could have taken

Referensi :
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modal_verb